Diagram of Process and Thread

This is one of some processes state:

  • Running: The process that is currently being executed. For this chapter, we will assume a computer with a single processor, so at most one process at a time can be in this state.
  • Ready: A process that is prepared to execute when given the opportunity.
  • Blocked/Waiting: A process that cannot execute until some event occurs, such as the completion of an I/O operation.
  • New: A process that has just been created but has not yet been admitted to the pool of executable processes by the OS. Typically, a new process has not yet been loaded into main memory, although its process control block has been created.
  • Exit: A process that has been released from the pool of executable processes by the OS, either because it halted or because it aborted for some reason.  

And this is Thread States of Windows from several threads state :

An existing Windows thread is in one of six states (Figure 4.14):

  • Ready: May be scheduled for execution. The Kernel dispatcher keeps track of all ready threads and schedules them in priority order.
  • Standby: A standby thread has been selected to run next on a particular processor. The thread waits in this state until that processor is made available. If the standby thread’s priority is high enough, the running thread on that processor may be preempted in favor of the standby thread. Otherwise, the standby thread waits until the running thread blocks or exhausts its time slice.
  • Running: Once the Kernel dispatcher performs a thread switch, the standby thread enters the Running state and begins execution and continues execution until it is preempted by a higher priority thread, exhausts its time slice, blocks, or terminates. In the first two cases, it goes back to the ready state.
  • Waiting: A thread enters the Waiting state when (1) it is blocked on an event (e.g., I/O), (2) it voluntarily waits for synchronization purposes, or (3) an environment subsystem directs the thread to suspend itself. When the waiting condition is satisfied, the thread moves to the Ready state if all of its resources are available.
  • Transition: A thread enters this state after waiting if it is ready to run but the resources are not available. For example, the thread’s stack may be paged out of memory. When the resources are available, the thread goes to the Ready state.
  • Terminated: A thread can be terminated by itself, by another thread, or when its parent process terminates. Once housekeeping chores are completed, the thread is removed from the system, or it may be retained by the executive9 for future reinitialization.

Resume By :

Fenny R.

Book –> Operating Systems, William Stalling 6th-Edition

The Problem of Hypertext

1. non-Linear

Sebelum menjelaskan tentang non Linear dalam hypertext, alangkah baiknya dijelaskan dulu tentang Linear..

Nah dari rpi.edu (Rensselaer Polytechnic institute) saya dapatkan penjelasannya seperti ini..

Sengaja tidak saya tulis dalam bahasa Indonesia karena takut ada kesalahan dalam penulisan, lebih baik dimengerti oleh pemahaman masing2… 🙂

Linear and non-linear are two distinctly different styles of thinking and writing. Linear writing is straight-line writing. Most papertext documents are linear. A linear document would have a fairly definite beginning, middle and ending. Most arguments are structured linearly with an introduction, supporting information, and a conclusion. Non-linear writing is more associative. Non-linear writing involves many different paths, sort of like this document. There may or may not be a beginning, but there is rarely a definite path or a single ending. This makes for a more reader-based document, and allows the reader to make choices.

2. Disorientation

Disorientation in navigation is defined here as a user’s perception of his/her uncertainty in location. While disorientation has been described as a major problem with hypertext use (e.g., Conklin, 1987; Jonassen & Grabinger, 1989; Thuring, Hannemann & Haake, 1995), some level of disorientation may be a good thing for the learner (Mayes, Kibby, & Anderson, 1990) as it forces her to use exploratory learning and to engage with and create a personal schematic representation of the content. Consequently, while the implementation of a three-dimensional spatial environment is technically feasible and would solve some disorientation problems for the learner, the use of such an environment with its visualization facilitation may provide the learner with too much information about locating information without letting the user discern the structure and meaning of the information.